The summary and critique of the article making ethical decisions

For example, two people are walking down a hallway and see a third person drop their book bag, spilling all of their books and papers onto the floor.

This approach stipulates that the best ethical action is that which protects the ethical rights of those who are affected by the action.

It helps in situations involving many people, some of whom may benefit from the action, while others may not. Ayer then deals with a major objection to his theory: One of the most influential recent proponents of ethical egoism was the Russian-American philosopher Ayn Randwho, in the book The Virtue of Selfishnessargues that self-interest is a prerequisite to self-respect and to respect for others.

Having a method for ethical decision making is essential.

The Rights Approach The Rights approach to ethics is another non-consequentialist approach which derives much of its current force from Kantian duty-based ethics, although it also has a history that dates back at least to the Stoics of Ancient Greece and Rome, and has another influential current which flows from work of the British empiricist philosopher John Locke We ask about what outcomes are desirable in The summary and critique of the article making ethical decisions given situation, and consider ethical conduct to be whatever will achieve the best consequences.

So ethical judgments, to the extent that they are factual, reduce to empirical facts. Therefore, radical empiricism must be correct about the nature of ethical terms. The children would suffer and die if parents did not care for them. The Consequentialist Framework In the Consequentialist framework, we focus on the future effects of the possible courses of action, considering the people who will be directly or indirectly affected.

For Kant, choosing to obey the universal moral law is the very nature of acting ethically. Three Broad Types of Ethical Theory: A good system of law should be ethical, but the law establishes precedent in trying to dictate universal guidelines, and is thus not able to respond to individual contexts.

But we nevertheless want to ethically praise the person who did stop, so we call his or her actions supererogatory. The Utilitarian Approach Utilitarianism can be traced back to the school of the Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus of Samos BCEwho argued that the best life is one that produces the least pain and distress.

We might say that having plastic surgery is ethically permissible, because it is not wrong to have the surgery it is not impermissiblebut neither is it ethically necessary obligatory to have the surgery. Because God is seen as omnipotent and possessed of free will, God could change what is now considered ethical, and God is not bound by any standard of right or wrong short of logical contradiction.

If the ethical judgment is generalized into a principle, the proposition containing it is neither true nor false. This document is designed as an introduction to making ethical decisions. First, Ayer differentiates four common subjects of ethical philosophy, and says that only one of them is actually philosophy proper: The chart below is designed to highlight the main contrasts between the three frameworks: While each of the three frameworks is useful for making ethical decisions, none is perfect—otherwise the perfect theory would have driven the other imperfect theories from the field long ago.

If there is in fact disputation of values in ethics, then radical empiricism is false. Among the most important contributions of this approach is its foregrounding of the principle of care as a legitimately primary ethical concern, often in opposition to the seemingly cold and impersonal justice approach.

A Framework for Making Ethical Decisions

That is, a person would not be wrong in committing suicide, nor would they be wrong in not committing suicide. It emphasizes the belief that all humans have a right to dignity. The Medieval Christian philosopher William of Ockham was one of the most influential thinkers in this tradition, and his writings served as a guide for Protestant Reformers like Martin Luther and Jean Calvin We define ethical behavior as whatever a virtuous person would do in the situation, and we seek to develop similar virtues.

Our experience with applying particular ethical standards or principles can inform our understanding of how good these standard or principles are. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action.

Religions may also advocate or prohibit certain behaviors which may not be considered the proper domain of ethics, such as dietary restrictions or sexual behaviors. They can thus be neither true nor false.

Ethical environmental action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected—government, corporations, the community, and the environment.

Many religions promote ethical decision-making but do not always address the full range of ethical choices that we face. Like virtue ethics, feminist ethics concerned with the totality of human life and how this life comes to influence the way we make ethical decisions.

Here our method for ethical decision making should enable us to recognize these new and unfamiliar situations and to act accordingly. Ancient Greek Sophists like Thrasymacus c. The opposite of an ethically obligatory action is an action that is ethically impermissible, meaning that it is wrong to do it and right not to do it.

The Duty-Based Approach The duty-based approach, sometimes called deontological ethics, is most commonly associated with the philosopher Immanuel Kantalthough it had important precursors in earlier non-consquentialist, often explicitly religious, thinking of people like Saint Augustine of Hippowho emphasized the importance of the personal will and intention and of the omnipotent God who sees this interior mental state to ethical decision making.

Further, it is not contradictory to say some pleasant things are not good.

For example, we might say it is ethically obligatory for parents to care for their children, not only because it is right for them to do it, but also because it is wrong for them not to do it.Ethical Decision Making: A Process Influenced by Moral Intensity Sarah Hope Lincoln, PhD (cand) Psychology Intern and take them into consideration will be better prepared to make moral decisions.

Ethical Decision Making: The Four Component Model James Rest’s () theoretical model to explain the process of ethical decision. making choices: a framework for making ethical decisions Decisions about right and wrong permeate everyday life.

Ethics should concern all levels of life: acting properly as individuals, creating responsible organizations and governments, and making our society as a whole more ethical. This study addressed public elementary school assistant principals‟ decision- making analyzed through an ethical framework including the ethics of justice, critique, care, and the profession (Shapiro & Stefkovich, ; Starratt, ).

Bringing Ethics into the Classroom: Making a Case for Frameworks, process in which they have to learn to make ethical decisions about instructional practices on their own (Huling & Resta, ; Moir, ).

For example, preservice teachers in special education learn about the special The ethic of critique illuminates flaws, but. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action.

Ethical Decisions in Turbulent Times

The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School by elementary school principals in making ethical decisions. 2 Theoretical Perspective The theoretical framework from Shapiro and Stefkovich, using four ethical paradigms of justice, critique, care and the profession created the foundation for this study.

The bedrock of.

The summary and critique of the article making ethical decisions
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